# Pi in the sky , and on the computer

Results and things  related to pi are usually published or made known on Pi Day . But you never know when you get inspired by π or find time to explore this ‘venerable’ math constant , and I have on Pi Day . By the way there is also a Pi approximation Day (July 22) , so there’s more than one date to talk or write  about π .

Let’s kick off with an image of the value of pi (in the clouds ) with 12 decimal digits , made with Photoshop.I tried to make it realistic and show π and its numerical value ( 3. 141592653589) as part of the clouds and the sky.

Click on the image above to see and enlarged version.

Now for some computer-based mathematical explorations related to π.
There is a known relation between e ( the base of the natural logarithm ) and π :

$e^{\pi }-\pi =19.999099979$ and is approximately equal to 20 or almost 20 , which is known as an almost integer.
If we try to be more accurate and find the first 1000 decimal digits for the expression above we get (with the help of Mathematica) the following number:

19.99909997918947576726644298466904449606893684322510617247010181721652594440424378488893717172543215169380461828780546649733419980514325361299208647148136824787768176096730370916343136911881572947102843075505750157713461345968680161070464780150721176248631484786057786790083331108325695374657291368002032330492961850463283115054452239990730318010838062172626769958035434209665854687644987964315998803435936569779503997342833135008957566815879735578133492779192490846222394896357465468950148911891909347185826596341254678588264050033689529697396648300564585855142666534919457239163444586998081050100236576797224041127139639108211122123659510905094871070706680635934325684092946890616346767578519812785089761055789304041857980123101280905543416254404987679233496308302396952371198509012175432057419088516489412743155057902167919927734272964964116423666794634333328342687902907792168390827162859622042360176355034576875485783678406122447755263475337650755251536818489395213976127148481818560841182505647  ,
which shows that $e^{\pi }-\pi$ does not approach 20 completely or uniformly.

Here are some more expressions and calculations  involving π (calculated with Mathematica):

I think it remains to be seen if the numbers above are transcendental. The Mathematica (version 10)  command Element[z , Algebraics ] cannot determine whether these numbers belong to the domain of algebraic numbers or not.

Now let’s consider an expression containing π , e and i (the imaginary unit complex number). The following expressions are equivalent:

A 2D complex plot of the last function above (with z between -4 and 4) gives the following graph (made with Maple):

A 3 D complex plot of the same function ( with z between -4-4i and 4+4i)   gives the following graph (with the help of Maple):

A general solution of the function f(z) above for f(z) = 0 is (calculated with Mathematica):

Here is an interesting result:

Using the Mathematica commands Element[z , Algebraics ] and Not[Element[z , Algebraics ]] , it seems that the solutions z of f(z)=0 above ( for different values of the constants ) do not belong to the domain of algebraic numbers , and are therefore  transcendental numbers.

And with this I bid π farewell for now.