This post is mostly inspired (with some additions and modifications) from and answer I wrote at quora.com .

I will try to give a list of famous , influential books or classic books having a significant historical importance in the fields of physics , astrophysics and astronomy . It’s a somewhat extensive list but it’s not exhaustive.

Starting with Antiquity :

- On the Heavens and Physics (Aristotle) .
- Works by Archimedes related to physics and astronomy , such as On Floating Bodies and The Sand Reckoner .
- De rerum natura or
*On the Nature of Things ,*by Lucretius . *On the Universe*, by Zeno of Citium .- Naturales quaestiones , by Seneca the Younger .
- Almagest , by Ptolemy . The featured image above from Wikipedia represents the edition of the Almagest published in Greek by Johan Heiberg at the end of the nineteenth century .

Then advancing to more recent times:

- Aryabhatiya and Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta .
*Zīj al-Sindhind*, by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi .- Book of Optics ,
*Epitome of Astronomy*,*On the Configuration of the World*, and*Doubts Concerning Ptolemy*by Alhazen . *The Mas’udi Canon*, by Al-Biruni .*The Final Quest Concerning the Rectification of Principles*, by Ibn al-Shatir .- Book of Fixed Stars by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi . Image below from Al-Sufi’s book (free image from Wikipedia).

- De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (
*On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres*) by Nicolaus Copernicus (image source below : :File:De Revolutionibus manuscript p9b.jpg )

- The scientific works of Galileo Galilei , such as Sidereus Nuncius , Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , and Two New Sciences .
- Dioptrique and The World (Descartes) .
*Experiences nouvelles touchant le vide*(*New experiments concerning Vacuum*) , by Blaise Pascal .

- Astronomy books by Johannes Kepler , such as Harmonices Mundi (
*The Harmony of the World*), Astronomia nova and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae .

Below is a page from the *Astronomia Nova* (in 1609) showing the three models of planetary motion known in the seventeenth century (free image from Wikipedia) :

- The works of Christiaan Huygens related to physics and astronomy , such as Horologium Oscillatorium ,
*Systema saturnium*, and*Traité de la lumière .* - Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (
*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*) and Opticks , by Isaac Newton .(Source of the image below :File:Prinicipia-title.png )

*Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets*, by Edmond Halley .- Hydrodynamica , by Daniel Bernoulli .(Source of the image below :File:HYDRODYNAMICA, Danielis Bernoulli.png )

*General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens*, by Immanuel Kant .- Mechanica , by Leonhard Euler .
*Théorie de la figure de la terre*, by Alexis Clairaut .*Traité de dynamique*, by Jean le Rond d’Alembert .*Mécanique Analytique*and papers by Joseph-Louis Lagrange .- Many works and papers by Pierre-Simon Laplace , such as
*Mécanique céleste*,*Théorie du Mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planètes*, and*Exposition du système du monde .* - Theory of the motion of the heavenly bodies moving about the sun in conic sections : a translation of Gauss’s “Theoria motus.” With an appendix : Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 1777-1855 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

- Papers about optics by Thomas Young (scientist) and Augustin-Jean Fresnel .
- Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire , by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot . Below is an image of the first French edition of Carnot’s book in 1824 (free image from Wikipedia) :

*Théorie analytique de la chaleur*(The Analytic Theory of Heat) , by Joseph Fourier.*Théorie des phénomènes électro-dynamiques, uniquement déduite de l’expérience*, by André-Marie Ampère .*Experimental Researches in Electricity ,*by Michael Faraday .- A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism , A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field , and
*Theory of heat*, by James Clerk Maxwell . *The Mechanical Theory of Heat*, by Rudolf Clausius .*History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace*, by Isaac Todhunter .*On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music*, by Hermann von Helmholtz .

*The Science of Mechanics*,*The Principles of Physical Optic*s , and*Principles of the Theory of Heat*, by Ernst Mach .*Lectures on Gas Theory*, by Ludwig Boltzmann .- Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics , by Josiah Willard Gibbs .
*Science and Hypothesis*, and*New Methods of Celestial Mechanics*, by Henri Poincaré .*Les Atomes*/*The Atoms*, by Jean Baptiste Perrin .- Works and papers by Max Planck , such as
*The Theory of Heat Radiation*and*Treatise on Thermodynamics .* - The principle of relativity; original papers : Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive
- The collected scientific works and papers of Albert Einstein .
- Scientific papers by Niels Bohr .

*Recherches sur la théorie des quanta*(*Researches on the quantum theory*) , and*The Current Interpretation of Wave Mechanics: A Critical Study*, by Louis de Broglie .*Collected papers*,*The interpretation of Quantum Mechanics*, and*Statistical Thermodynamics*, by Erwin Schrödinger .*The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory*, by Werner Heisenberg .- Books and papers by Paul Dirac , such as The Principles of Quantum Mechanics and
*Lectures on Quantum Field Theory*. *Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory*,*The Internal Constitution of Stars*, and*The Nature of the Physical World*, by Arthur Eddington .*Problems of Cosmology and Stellar Dynamics ,**An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases*, and*The Growth of Physical Science*, by James Hopwood Jeans .*The Theory of Sound*, by John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh .*Problems of Atomic Dynamics*,*Atomic Physics*,*Principles of Optics*,*Experiment and Theory in Physics*, and*A General Kinetic Theory of Liquids*, by Max Born .

- Scientific papers and books by Richard Feynman , such as The Feynman Lectures on Physics ,
*Quantum Electrodynamics*,*Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals .* *A History of Astronomy*, by Anton Pannekoek .*An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure*,*Radiative Transfer*,*Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability*, and*The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes*, by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar .*The Eightfold Way*, edited by Murray Gell-Mann and Y. Ne’eman .- Course of Theoretical Physics , by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz .
*Relativistic Astrophysics (2 volumes)*, by Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich .- Books and papers by Steven Weinberg , such as
*The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe*,*Gravitation and Cosmology*,*The Quantum Theory of Fields (3 volumes)*, and*A Model of Leptons*.

- Books and papers by David Bohm , such as
*Quantum Theory*,*Causality and Chance in Modern Physics*,*The Undivided Universe.*

Some more recent well known , insightful and/or widely used books would include :

- The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time , by Stephen Hawking and George F. R. Ellis .
*Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics*, by John Stewart Bell .*Classical-Mechanics*, by Herbert Goldstein .*Classical Electrodynamics*, by J.D. Jackson .*Galactic Dynamics*by Binney and Tremaine .*,**The Quantum Theory of Motion: an account of the de Broglie-Bohm Causal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics*, by Peter Holland .*Photons and Atoms: Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics*, by Claude Cohen-Tannoudji , Gilbert Grynberg and Jacques Dupont-Roc .*Introduction to Elementary Particles*, by D.J. Griffiths .

*Condensed Matter Field Theory*, by Alexander Altland .*The Standard Model and Beyond*, by Paul Langacker .*The Road to Reality*, by Roger Penrose .*Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law*, by Peter Woit .*The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next*, by Lee smolin .*Farewell to Reality: How Modern Physics Has Betrayed the Search for Scientific Truth*, by Jim Baggott .

Additional relevant links :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hi…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hi…

Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world